A. Conceptual changes and the exploration of new territories: Nature vs. Nurture debates; Ethological studies (imprinting, attachment, homing navigation, bee dancing, fixed patterns, stimulus releasers, etc.)
B. Information Processing Framework: Entropy (degrees of uncertainty and learning); Multiple Stores of Memorial Processing (encoding, storage, retrieval and control processes); Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models: Interaction of top-down and bottom-up processing.
C. Triarchic theory of intelligence: The theory, proposed by Robert Sternberg, contends that there are three types of intelligence: practical (the ability to get along in different context), creative (the ability to come up with new ideas), and analytical (the ability to evaluate information and solve problems)
D. Turin tests, neuro-network algorithms, and Artificial Intelligence
A. Neurobiological and Genetic Approaches to Cognition: Kandel’s synaptic biochemical changes and Hebbian theory; neuropathways for where and what; Gene and behaviors (identical- vs. fraternal-twin studies with respect to IQ and personality; Developmental dyslexia, Down’s and William’s Syndromes, Autism)
B. Cognitive Sciences: Structural linguistic and cultural anthropology; Chomsky’s critical review of Skinner’s language learning theory; Constructive theory of memory (From Bartlett to Bransford); Script, schema, story grammar and the world knowledge
C. Infants as linguists and as scientists
A. Mind/brain relationship: Cerebral asymmetry (Hemispheric lateralization and split-brain studies; Tachistoscope half-field presentation and hemispheric specialization; Dichotic listening and shadowing experiments)
B. Hemispheric asymmetry in animals (Ants, bees, song birds, monkeys and chimps
C. A two-brain theory of human cognitive functions: Cerebral lateralization of cognitive functions had been recognized for a long time. Convincing clinical evidences for the hemispheric asymmetry in language processing appeared 150 years ago by medical doctors Broca (1861) in France and Wernicke (1876) in Germany. Experimental results from the split-brain patients and from normal subjects with visual-half field as well as dichotic listening paradigms in the 60’s and 70’s provided further support for the two-brain for one consciousness description of cerebral asymmetry. Tzeng and Wang (1984) characterized the dominant function of the left and right hemispheres in terms of superior temporal and spatial coding, respectively. With more and more specific cognitive functions being identified and localized in the two hemispheres, an architecture of functional lateralization and its relationship to callosal connectivity in the human brain was constructed (Kaloris, et al., 2019).
A. In search for a missing link: Sailing into the Neglected Sea of Cerebellum (In retrospect, an unfortunate misgiving in constructing a brain architecture regarding the various specific cognitive functions is its obvious neglect of the cerebellum, which sits at the back and bottom of the brain, behind the brainstem, and had long been recognized as responsible for several function relating only to fine movements and coordination, including maintaining balance, controlling eye movements, and facilitating motor learning. Since late 90’s, our laboratory studies have consistently found the cerebellum is engaged during reading and differentially activates in response to phonologic and semantic tasks, indicating that it contributes to the cognitive processes integral to reading (Fulbright, et al., 1999). Lately, more and more recent studies, which focus on scanning the cerebellum, have clearly shown that it appears to play a critical role in cognitive functions such as working memory, cognitive control, action observation, language, decision making, emotion, and social cognition like daily planning. But so far, no theory has been provided to identify the functional role the cerebellum plays in its coordination with the cerebral cortex, which of course is the major player in performing the cognitive tasks.
B. Probabilistic Functionalism: A Conception of Research Methods and its implications for the human complexity (Lewis Petrinovich, 1979; Tzeng, 2021)
C. A brand new two-brain theory of human cognitive functions: In this lecture, I will present a new two-brain theory which specify the critical role of the cerebellum as the professional construction management (PCM) unit, setting up an internal model of the cognitive task at hand and monitoring the performing operations of the cerebral cortex with respect to the temporal and spatial bindings at the neuro-cellular level. It is speculated that the PCM-like control processor allows the cerebellum to provide a scaffolding role for the emergence of an efficient information processing architecture (Encoding, Organized Storage, Fast Retrieval) and make it possible for human being to be good at focus attention, divided attention and selective attention, in performing sophisticated problem solving, innovation, and creativity. In sum, the new two-brain theory articulates the vital role of the cerebellum in transforming the cognitive operations of the whole brain from a simple village shop to become a complex corporate such as a 7/Eleven Super Market.
D. Concluding remarks:
(NI x AI x K x E) = Augmenting Intelligence
(智慧爆發力，永無止盡！Almost Infinite Expansion of Smarter Intelligence)